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Development of firearms

In 1807, Alexander Forsyth from Scotland invented the firearm ignition system with fulminate of mercury. Percussion caps filled with mercury and placed on the conic touch hole came to be used about ten years later.


In 1835, the production of the revolver invented in Samuel Colt’s company began. Revolvers have revolving cylinders for the ammunition with the percussion caps placed behind them.

Minie bullets

In 1855, there were muzzle-loading groove rifles shooting conical expanding bullets in every modern army.

Rimfire ammunition

In 1857, the rimfire ammunition was invented in the USA and the production of the Smith & Wesson revolvers shooting the given cartridges was begun.

Centerfire ammunition

In 1865, the centerfire ammunition with the percussion cap under the brass shell casing was invented, the cartridge joins the ammunition, bullet and the primer.


In 1866, the Winchester factory began the manufacture of a repeating rifle.

Maxim gun

In 1881, Hiram Maxim constructed the first utilizable automatic weapon – the machine gun. The mechanism of the given weapon employs the recoil force to eject the used cartridge and to insert the next one.

Mannlicher rifle

In 1886, the Mannlicher rifle was adopted by the Austrian army. The cartridges joined by a metal frame were inserted into the magazine under the stock. In France, rifles with smokeless gunpowder cartridges came to be used.

Mauser rifle

In 1889, the Belgian army adapted the Mauser rifle. The breech was loaded with cartridges as a unit by pushing them from the clip to the breech with a thumb.

Mauser pistol

In 1896, the production of the automatic Mauser pistol began. The pistol employs its own recoil force for loading, the magazine loaded from the handle is in front of the trigger guard.