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The equipment of a knight in the 13th century

The heavily armed knight wore a chain mail shirt and trousers, the head was mostly protected by an iron helmet with a nose guard or a flat-topped closed helmet with eye slits and holes for breathing. The main weapon was a pike, for additional protection also wooden shields with iron covers were used. The knight’s war horse was usually covered with a blanket.

Local peculiarities


A double-edged weapon over a metre long for striking and cutting. The blade typically narrowed towards the tip. The swords used by the Estonians and crusaders in the 13th century did not differ from one another considerably. The sword depicted here was more than a metre long, a similar one has been found on Lõhavere hill fort.


A weapon with a stock and horizontal limb for shooting arrows. The force of one’s hands was not enough to draw the bowstring and thus legs had to be used. The crossbow exceeded the traditional bow in terms of force and accuracy. In the 13th century crossbow was the main infantry weapon in Western Europe.


In the 13th century, trebuchets were primarily meant for throwing rocks or shooting large arrows. If the system of the trebuchet for throwing rocks was based on counterweight, then there are various theories for the construction of arrow trebuchets.